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油浸式变压器三相不平衡究竟有什么危害?

油浸式变压器三相不平衡究竟有什么危害?
What is the harm of three-phase unbalance in oil immersed transformer?
对有一些大型的电气设备,很多人都只关注质量高低。在平时的生活中,很少听说电气设备电力不平衡而引发的的事故,那么,是不是电力不平衡就没有危害呢?当然不是。
Yes, there are some large electrical equipment, and many people are concerned only with quality. In ordinary life, rarely heard of electrical equipment, power imbalances caused by accidents, then, is not the imbalance of electricity, there is no harm? Of course not.
1、对油浸式变压器自身的危害。
1, the oil immersed transformer itself harm.
济南变压器油厂家http://www.jnwdsh.com通常情况下,油浸式变压器有铁损(空载损耗)和铜损(负载损耗)两种损耗,铁损一般不变,铜损会根据负载的变化而变化。当三相负荷不平衡的时候运行,油浸式变压器的负荷损耗可看成三只单相油浸式变压器的负荷损耗之和。这有可能给油浸式变压器造成及严重的后果,不平衡时会造成相电流过大(增为3倍),从而造成绕组和油浸式变压器油的过热。
Under normal circumstances, oil immersed transformers have iron losses (no-load losses) and copper losses (load losses) two losses, iron losses are generally unchanged, copper losses will vary according to the load. When the three-phase load is unbalanced, the load loss of the oil immersed transformer can be regarded as the sum of the load losses of the three single-phase oil immersed transformers. This may cause serious consequences for oil immersed transformers, which can cause excessive phase current (3 times) when unbalanced, resulting in overheating of windings and oil immersed transformer oil.
绕组过热,绝缘老化加快;油浸式变压器油过热,引起油质劣化,快速减小油浸式变压器的绝缘性能,减少油浸式变压器寿命(温度每升高8℃,使用年限将会降低一半),甚至烧毁绕组。同时三相不平衡条件下运行的油浸式变压器产生零序磁通,零序磁通流经油浸式变压器金属部件组成的回路,是油浸式变压器发热,同样影响油浸式变压器运行安全。
Heating winding, insulation aging accelerated; oil immersed transformer oil overheating caused by oil deterioration, the insulation performance of rapid decrease of the oil immersed transformer, oil immersed transformer life (reduce temperature rise every 8 degrees, life will be reduced half, or even burned winding). At the same time, unbalanced three-phase oil immersed transformer condition produces zero flux, zero flux through the oil immersed transformer metal components of the circuit is oil immersed transformer fever, also affect the safe operation of oil immersed transformer.
2、对油浸式变压器相关线路的影响。
2 、 influence on oil immersed transformer related lines.
上文提到三相不平衡会产生零序磁通,零序磁通在中性线上会变为中性线电流,这样不但相线会有损耗,同时中性线也会产生损耗,从而就会增加了电网线路的损耗。
The above mentioned three phase unbalance will produce zero flux, zero flux will become neutral line current in the neutral line, this line will not only loss, while the neutral line will also have a loss, which will increase the loss of power supply lines.
另一方面,在三相四线制结线方式下,当三相平衡时线损最小;当一相负荷重,两相负荷较轻的情况下线损增量较小;当一相负荷重,一相负荷轻,而第三相的负荷较为平均负荷的情况下线损增量较大;当一相负荷轻,两相负荷重的情况下线损增量将会最大的。当三相负荷不平衡时,无论何种负荷分配情况,电流不平衡度越大,线损增量也越大。
On the other hand, in the three-phase four wire connection mode, when the three-phase equilibrium line loss minimum; when a phase of heavy load, two lighter load line loss increment is small; when a heavy load, a light load, and the three-phase load is more average load line loss increase large amount when a phase; light load, load weight loss will be the largest increment under two. When the three-phase load is unbalanced, no matter what kind of load distribution, the greater the current imbalance is, the greater the line loss will be.
3、对用电设备的影响。
3, the impact of electrical equipment.
各相之间的不平衡会导致用电设备使用寿命缩短,加速部件的更换频率,也就增加设备维护的成本。对于配变电设备来讲,在三相负载不平衡条件下运行时,各相的输出电流是不相等的,这就导致其内部三相压降不相等,从而造成输出电压三相不平衡。同时,配变电设备在三相负载不平衡条件下运行,三相的输出电流不一样,导致中性线就会有电流通过。因而使中性线产生阻抗压降,从而导致中性点漂移,致使各相相电压发生变化。负载重的一相电压降低,而负载轻的一相电压升高。
The imbalance between phases can lead to shorter service life of electrical equipment, replacement frequency of accelerating components, and increase the cost of equipment maintenance. For substation equipments, unbalanced load condition in three phase, each phase of the output current is not equal, which leads to its internal three-phase pressure drop is not equal, thus causing the output voltage unbalance. At the same time, the substation equipment runs under the unbalanced three-phase load, and the three-phase output current is different, which leads to the current passing through the neutral line. As a result, the impedance of the neutral line is suppressed, leading to a drift of the neutral point, resulting in a change in the phase voltage. The negative load phase voltage decreases while the light load phase voltage rises.
在电压不平衡状况下供电,即容易造成电压高的一相接带的用户用电设备烧坏,而电压低的一相接带的用户用电设备则可能无法使用。所以三相负载不平衡运行时,将严重危及用电设备的安全运行。 对于电动机来讲,三相电压不平衡也会使电动机中逆扭矩增加,从而使电动机的温度上升,效率下降,能耗增加,发生震动,输出亏耗等影响。对于断路器来讲,三相不平衡会使断路器允许电流的余量减少,当负载变更或交替时容易发生超载、短路现象等。
When the voltage is unbalanced, the power supply is easy to cause the user's electric equipment with a high voltage to be burned out, and the user equipment with a low voltage and a connecting belt may not be used. Therefore, the unbalanced operation of three-phase load will seriously endanger the safe operation of power equipment. For motor, three-phase voltage imbalance will cause the motor torque in the inverse increase, so that the motor temperature rise, lower efficiency, energy consumption increases, the shock occurs, the output depletion effect. For the circuit breaker, the three-phase imbalance will make the circuit breaker to allow the current margin reduction, when the load changes or alternate, prone to overloading, short-circuit and so on.
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