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配电变压器的检查维护与故障处理

一、配电变压器的运行检查措施
I. operation inspection measures of distribution transformers
(一)噪声检查
(I) noise inspection
运行状态下的配电变压器,通常会发出“嗡嗡”声,这一声音具有均匀、轻微的特点。而当声响发生变化,则说明配电变压器产生了一定故障。因此,在对配电变压器进行日常维护和管理的过程中,对其噪声进行检查是关键途径之一。
The distribution transformer in operation usually emits a buzzing sound, which is uniform and slight. When the sound changes, it shows that the distribution transformer has a certain fault. Therefore, in the process of routine maintenance and management of distribution transformers, checking their noise is one of the key approaches.
山东变压器生产厂家http://www.jnwdsh.com/检查方法为:应用绝缘拉杆,将其一段牢固顶在配电变压器上,从另一端听取配电变压器发出的声响,对是否存在杂音进行判断[1]。如果此时听到了“噼啪”声,则说明配电变压器运行过程中,产生了击穿铁芯的故障
Inspection method is: the use of insulation rod, a section firmly to the distribution transformer, from the other end to listen to the distribution transformer noise, whether there is noise judgment, [1]. If you hear a crackling sound, the operation process of distribution transformer, the core of the breakdown fault
(二)对油位、油温以及油色进行全面检查
(two) to conduct a comprehensive inspection of the oil level, oil temperature and oil
在对配电变压器的运行状态进行检查的过程中,油位、油温以及油色是重点内容之一。配电变压器运行中,通常会散发一定的热量,如果工作电流在流经线圈时相对较大,将增加发热量,此时会导致油温不断上升。正常运行状态下的配电变压器,最高油温通常在85~95摄氏度,如果在实际检查工作中发现油温超过这一限值,则说明配电变压器内部发热加剧,应及时展开停机修理。而正常运行状态下的配电变压器,其油位通常在1/4~3/4之间,如果油位异常,很可能是漏油导致的。
In the process of checking the running state of the distribution transformer, oil level, oil temperature and oil is one of the key content. In the operation of a distribution transformer, a certain amount of heat is usually emitted. If the operating current is relatively large when the flow through the coil, it will increase the heat, which will cause the oil temperature to rise continuously. Distribution transformer under normal operating conditions, the highest temperature is usually around 85 to 95 degrees Celsius, if in the actual inspection work found in the oil temperature exceeds this limit, the transformer internal heat intensified, should be timely start stop repair. In the normal operation of the distribution transformer, the oil level is usually between 1/4 and 3/4, and if the oil level is abnormal, it is likely to be caused by oil leakage.
二、配电变压器的运行维护措施
Two, distribution transformer operation and maintenance measures
(一)对外加设备进行合理安装
(1) proper installation of equipment for external use;
在对配电变压器进行日常维护的过程中,应将绝缘罩合理的安装在低压端和高压端,加大对自然灾害以及外力的破坏的预防力度。这样一来,高空坠物等对配电变压器的影响就会减小,不易导致低压短路和烧毁问题。
In the process of routine maintenance of the distribution transformer, the insulation cover should be reasonably installed at the low voltage end and the high voltage end, so as to strengthen the prevention of the natural disasters and the destruction of the external forces. As a result, the impact of the falling objects on the distribution transformer will be reduced, and it is difficult to cause low voltage short-circuit and burnout.
(二)合理安装避雷器
(two) reasonable installation of lightning arrester
在对配电变压器进行日常维护的过程中,过电压保护工作中,应对避雷器进行合理的应用,避雷器以无间隙金属氧化物为主,这样一来,配电变压器在运行的过程中就不会受到高压雷电波的严重侵袭,能够降低内部绝缘击穿和短路发生的概率。工作人员在对配电变压器进行日常维护时,应定期展开接地电阻检测,严禁焊接点脱焊问题的发生,从而预防接地电阻超标的问题。
In the process of transformer maintenance, overvoltage protection work, reasonable application to lightning arrester, lightning arrester with gapless metal oxide, as a result, the distribution transformer will not be a serious invasion of high voltage lightning wave in the process of operation, the internal insulation breakdown and short circuit can decrease the occurrence probability. The staff in the day-to-day maintenance of the distribution transformer, should be regularly carried out grounding resistance testing, welding point prohibited desoldering, thus preventing the grounding resistance exceed the standard problem.
三、配电变压器的常见故障处理
Three, distribution transformer common fault treatment
(一)绕组匝间短路
(1) winding turn to turn short circuit
山东变压器绕组匝间短路是配电变压器运行过程中常见故障之一。在发生这一故障时,配电变压器的油温将不断升高,黑烟会从油枕盖中冒出,同时配电变压器整体运行温度也相对较高,此时会导致气体继电器被触动。这一故障通常是由于变压器进水导致的,此时绕组被水浸入,绝缘性在焊接处和导线处会受到损坏;而杂物浸入到油道中也是导致这一故障产生的主要原因之一。
Winding turn to turn short circuit is one of the common faults in the operation of distribution transformers. In the event of a failure, the oil temperature distribution transformer will continue to rise, the black smoke emitted from the oil pillow cover, and the overall operation of distribution transformer temperature is relatively high, this will lead to the gas relay is touched. This failure is usually due to transformer water caused by the winding is immersed in water, insulation damage in welding and wire; and debris immersed into the oil passage is one of the leading causes of the fault.
(二)配电变压器自动跳闸事故
(two) automatic tripping accident of distribution transformer;
通常情况下,断路器会被安装于配电变压器的高、中、低压三侧,从而保证设备长期处于稳定的运行状态下,而继电保护装置也会被安装于配电变压器中。一旦自动跳闸的现象产生于配电变压器中,这一状况应由值班人员向调度室进行快速报告,并对跳闸的原因进行判断,此时工作人员应将检查的重点放在火光、过负荷、喷油以及短路等问题上[3]。如果并没有发现配电变压器存在内部故障,那么说明二次回路误动在保护装置中的存在是导致配电变压器产生自动跳闸的主要原因。
Normally, the circuit breaker will be installed on the distribution transformer is high, medium and low voltage side three, so as to ensure the equipment running state in long-term stability, and protection equipment will be installed in distribution transformer. Once the automatic tripping phenomenon in transformer, this situation should be on duty to the dispatch office for quick report, and on the trip cause of judgment, at this time the staff should check the focus on the problem of fire, overload, short circuit and [3] injection. If there is no internal fault in the distribution transformer, then the existence of the two circuit malfunction in the protection device is the main reason for the automatic tripping of the distribution transformer.
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