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变压器油高温介损值不稳定的四项原因

1、变压器在安装时受到污染
1 、 the transformer is polluted when it is installed
变压器在安装时附有尘埃、杂质,投入运行一段时间后,胶体杂质渐渐析出。胶体粒子直径较小,一般仅在10-9~10-7m,扩散慢,但有一定的活动能量,粒子可自动聚结,由小变大,为粗分散系,处于非平衡的不稳定状态。当超出胶体范围时,因重力而沉积,但胶体的稳定性大,沉积时间缓慢,且受温度、电压的影响。由于胶体自动聚结,处于非平衡的不稳定状态,使分散体系在各水平面上的浓度不等,一般认为,底部浓度及设备底部油的介损值较大,上层油的介损值较小,因此,取样部位的不同也会直接影响变压器油介质损耗的测定。
When the transformer is installed, it contains dust and impurities, and after a period of operation, the colloidal impurities are gradually dispersed. Colloidal particles are small in diameter, generally only in the 10-9 - 10 - 7m, diffusion is slow, but there is a certain activity energy, particles can automatically coalescence, from small to large, for coarse dispersion system, in a non-equilibrium unstable state. When the colloid range is exceeded, it is deposited by gravity, but the stability of colloid is large, the deposition time is slow, and it is affected by temperature and voltage. The automatic colloid coalescence instability in non equilibrium, the dispersion concentration in each horizontal plane range, generally, the dielectric loss at the bottom and bottom oil concentration equipment value is large, the upper oil dielectric loss value is smaller, therefore, different sampling positions will also directly affect the determination of transformer oil medium loss.
2、油—固体绝缘的水平衡交换
2, oil and solid insulation water balance exchange
充油设备中绝缘油和油浸绝缘材料来源有:外部浸入、内部自生。
In oil filled equipment, the sources of insulating oil and oil immersed insulation are: external immersion and internal self formation.
外部浸入。首先是变压器等电气设备的制造过程中绝缘材料虽经干燥处理,但其深层仍含有残余水份,在运输、安装过程中如保护措施不当会使绝缘材料再度受潮,运行中呼吸系统进潮气,通过油面渗入油内。
External immersion. The first is the process of manufacturing transformers and other electrical equipment of the insulating material although after drying treatment, but its deep still contains residual moisture in the course of transportation and installation such as improper protective measures the insulating material will again damp, moisture into the respiratory system operation, through the infiltration of oil within the oil surface.
山东变压器油
内部自生。设备内部产生水分是指固体绝缘材料和变压器在运行过程中,由于氧化热裂解而生成水份,绝缘油在运行温度下并有溶解氧存在时,其氧化作用加快,产生有机酸生成水分。
Autogenic. The equipment inside water is the solid insulating materials and transformer in the operation process, because the oxidation and thermal cracking and formation water, insulating oil and dissolved oxygen in the operation temperature, accelerate the oxidation of organic acids produced to generate water.
水在纤维—空气与纤维—油中于一定温度下达到分布平衡,油和纸中所含的水份可相互转换,当温度较高时,油中含水率增高,而纸中含水率降低,纸中水分向油中扩散;当温度降低时,纸中含水率增高,而油中含水率降低,绝缘纸将从油中吸收水份,运行变压器油中含水量与油温、季节(气温)的变化由此产生。油中含水量存在夏季高,冬季低的现象。但油和纸之间水份的平衡过程不能在短期内完成,对大型变压器在运行温度较为稳定的情况下,这种平衡要几个月才能达到,因此,绝缘油高温介损会因在不同季节测定时发生变化。
The water in the air and fiber fiber oil at a certain temperature to reach the equilibrium distribution, containing oil and moisture in the paper can be mutual conversion, when the temperature is high, the increase rate of oil and water, reducing the moisture content of paper, paper moisture diffusion to oil; when the temperature decreases, the rate of increase of water water paper, and oil moisture content decreased, insulation paper will absorb the water from the oil, water and oil containing oil, season of transformer (temperature) of the resulting changes. The water content in oil is high in summer and low in winter. But can not balance moisture between the oil and the paper in the short term, for large transformer is relatively stable in the operating temperature, the balance should be several months to achieve, therefore, high temperature insulating oil dielectric loss due to changes in different seasons were.
3、微生物的污染
3, microbial pollution
由于油中含有水、空气、碳化有机物、各种矿物质,形成了微生物生长的基本条件,微生物在这种特殊的环境条件下生存并繁殖。油的高温介损测试对油中微生物极为敏感,主变在不同时期内所带负荷不同,运行油温及微生物在不同的温度下繁殖速度也不同,所以,油的高温介损值不稳定。
Because the oil contains water, air, carbonized organic matter and various minerals, the basic conditions for microbial growth are formed. Microorganisms live and reproduce in this particular environment. High temperature dielectric loss test of the oil in the oil microorganism is extremely sensitive, the main variable in different periods with different load, operation temperature and microbial propagation speed at different temperatures are different, so the value is not high temperature stable dielectric loss of oil.
4、不同试验设备的测量差异
4 measurement difference of different test equipment
用不同型号、制造厂家的油介损测试设备进行同一油样试验时,存在随机和操作误差。当高压标准电容器的损耗值较大、电桥的准确度达不到要求或温控装置加热过快、过慢时,是影响油介损测量的直接原因。
When the same oil sample is tested by the oil loss test equipment of different types and manufacturers, there are random and operational errors. When the high voltage standard capacitor has a large loss, the accuracy of the bridge is not up to the standard, or the heating device is too fast and too slow, it is the direct cause of the loss of dielectric loss.
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